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AMYDON-EXETER CENTRE 113

Individual Meetings & Group Encounters When The Time Is Right: Uncover, Recover, Discover Personal Creativity
Self-Education - Career Guidance - Holistic Psychotherapy - Diet - Transpersonal Meanings & Values - Body-Work

 

MALTA'S PREDILUVIAN CULTURE AT THE STONE-AGE TEMPLES

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ĦA AR QIM

GĦAR DALAM, CART-RUTS, IL-MISQA, IL-MAQLUBA

&

CREATION

© JOSEPH S. ELLUL 1988

A selection of Joseph S. Ellul's related personal correspondence with our webmaster-editor may also be read on, or freely downloaded from this Web Site.

German Translation - Malta 1994

First world-wide Internet Edition published by Colin James Hamer - 2000.
Augmented with new material by the author - 2004
... and by the editor - 2006.

The Author thanks all those who may have helped in the compilation of this book.

Printed: Printwell Ltd. - Malta

Ins deutsche übersetzt von: Michæl Weber

Cover Design: Tarcisio Bonnici

Gedruckt: Printwell Ltd. - Malta

Photos & Sketches: The Author

Fotografien und Skizzen: Der Autor

Copyright: The Author

Alle rechte vorbehalten: Der Autor

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PREFACE TO THE INTERNET EDITION

At King's College, London, on the morning of Saturday, 6th August 1932, during the closing plenary session of the First International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, an event characterized by Prof. A. W. Brøgger as "un évènement des plus heureux dans l'histoire de l'archéologie de l'Europe", the third and fifth of the resolutions previously approved by the relevant Sections, considered by the Bureau and submitted by the Permanent Council to be formally adopted require: "3. Que le Congrès entreprenne la composition d'un vocabulaire international des termes techniques employés en archéologie préhistorique sous la rédaction du Prof. V. G. Childe avec la coopération de tous les pays représentés au Congrès 5. Que le Congrès établisse un Comité de Recherches pour l'étude des monuments et de la civilisation du bassin occidental de la Méditéranée, et que les savants suivants soient invités à prendre part au Comité: Prof. P. Bosch Gimpera, Mr. W. J. Hemp, M. R. Lantier, Mlle E. de Manneville, Miss M. Murray, Prof. J. L. Myres, Prof. M. Reygasse, Prof. A. Taramelli, Dr. G. Ugolini, and Sir T. Zammit. "

Clearly, therefore, the recorded opinions of Professor Vere Gordon Childe and the expert testimony of the Maltese Doctor of Medicine & Professor of Archæology Sir Themistocles Zammit, which are extensively drawn upon by Joseph S. Ellul in his own invaluable account here for the first time published on the Internet, shed important light not only on many relevant items of material data, their contextual interpretation and consequent proposal for our accepance as probable or certain facts but also, and on occasion even more importantly, on the language and in particular on the vocabulary both specialist-technical and everyday-traditional, in terms of which on the island of Malta such facts have in the past, and are now, best expressed.

After Sir Charles Peers had concluded his address as outgoing President of the 639 members strong Association, 186 of whom had been present for the various proceedings, Professor Brøgger, in the course of his remarks as incoming President said: "I have just read in a newspaper about this Congress, that here you would meet all those who know the scandals of the Stone Age, some thousand years ago. I do not know whether it is the scandals which provide our greatest attraction, but it struck me that this revealed a popular surprise and confidence, that a science, working with ancient stone implements, broken pieces of pottery, the good and bad handicraft of ancient goldsmiths, the implements of primitive agriculture and the ruins of houses and fortresses should be able to reproduce so vivid a reconstruction in our own age. The reason for this and the reason why the prehistoric sciences have won so wide a position in the interest of modern society is that they are no longer the curious hobbies of small collectors and of isolated scientists. The ancient history of mankind has become a most living factor in modern life and its students are working with a feeling of high social responsibility to modern civilization."

The organization and success of that Congress in spite of the disastrous economic situation so widely prevalent in 1932 had been greatly facilitated by His Majesty's Government at the time, who had earlier transmitted its Organizing Committee's invitation to the Governments of Foreign Powers and to His Majesty's Governments in the then British Dominions and Colonies. Although citizens of the Republic of Malta are today rightly proud of their enormously rich cultural heritage and archæological patrimony, it is already more than abundantly evident that they cannot without the continuing encouragement and support of the rest of our human family effectively manage, maintain and, please G-d, even enhance the value of their uniquely important Early Stone-Age legacy - especially since, as already explained elsewhere on this website, so much of it still reposes so happily at the bottom of the deep blue sea!

Read Joseph's book and then, please, re-member!

Whether or not you agree with Joseph's dates and with his account of Noah's Flood and its impact on what are now the islands of Malta and Gozo, the generally accepted dating of the Messinian salinity crisis to 5.96 to 5.33 million years ago when the Mediterranean is believed to have been cut off from the Atlantic by tectonic and glacio-eustatic processes terminated by rapid and extensive inundations over the Gibraltar land-bridge, which left the Mediterranean about 130 metres short of the depth it attained 12,000 to 10,000 years ago during the 'great melt' at the end of the Ice Age, does, of course, presuppose acceptance of a geological chronology for which, I suspect, no real evidence is available. The radiocarbon-dating of mollusc shells found in both fresh-water and saline sediments in core samples taken from below the floor of the Black Sea suggest that its waters only became salty and rose to their present level about 7,500 years ago, when the Mediterranean first burst through a natural dam across the Bosphorus. Robert Cornuke's Ark Fever (Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 2005) includes copies of some July 2005 colour photographs taken in northern Iran on the Mian-Se-Chal mountain near the Caspian Sea; what they show may be petrified remains of Noah's Ark...

INDEX OF CONTENTS

Page-numbers are those of the 1988 first English edition. Copies of the very slightly longer German edition of 1994 are available upon application to the author at his home address:

Ħaġar Qim House, 49 St. Catherine Street, ZURRIEQ ZRQ 1083, Malta.

The two paragraphs in German here reproduced from that more recent edition represent new material which the author has not as yet published in English, but the Appendices, Bibliography, critical notes and other additional references, together with any square-bracketed additions to the main body of the text itself have here been supplied by our editor and webmaster; they may not always reflect either the author's or his principal German translator's sometimes significantly different specific opinions and beliefs.

Dedication

1

Introduction

2

Prehistory

3

The Flood

6

Age of the Temple

13

Silting Up

16

The Name

17

Excavations

17

The Number Seven

18

Neolithic Temple Alignments

20

Calendric Alignments of Malta's Neolithic Temples

25

Malta's Neolithic Idols

26

Statues' Origin

26

Sex of Statuettes

27

The Shape of the Temple

29

Going Round the Ruins

31

The Temple

31

Room A

33

Room B

35

Room C - The Holy of Holies

39

Room D

39

The Roof

40

Room E

41

Room F

43

The Western Wall

46

Room H

47

Room I

48

The Doors

50

The Outside Wall

50

The Older Temple

51

The Protecting Bastion

53

The Women's Altar

53

The Biggest Stone

54

The Dwelling-Houses

54

The Southern Wall

56

The Misqa Water-Tanks

57

On Il-Misqa

58

Concluding

59

The Actual History of The Great Flood

61

Għar Dalam (The Cave of Darkness)

62

The Cart-Ruts

65

Malta's Prehistoric Genius

70

Mediterranean Basin Catastrophe

73

Il-Maqluba

76

The Story of Creation

80

The Word "Yom - Jum - Day"

80

The Text of Genesis with Explanation

81

What is the Firmament

83

Sketch of Creation

85

Notes on the Photographs and other Illustrations

87

Additional Pictures and Sketches incorporated in this special Internet edition

95

Of related interest: St. Paul's Shipwreck & Malta's 'Temple Under-The-Sea'

 

Invitation to Archæology by Professor Philip Rahtz

144*

Suggestions for further reading and additional Notes

 

AUTHOR'S DEDICATION

To

The Hon. Prof. Sir Themistocles Zammit, O.B.E.,

Kt. C.M.G., M.D., D.Litt. (Oxon),

who dedicated his life

to give life to, take care of,

bring together and preserve

Malta's Heirlooms from Prehistoric Man,

with the greatest respect this book

I DEDICATE

ALSO

To my dear Father,

CARMEL

who, though officially the caretaker of the ĦA AR QIM TEMPLES, possessed qualities very much appreciated by Sir Temi, who very often asked my father to accompany him on his excursions of research on the many archæological sites, including Tarxien and GĦAR DALAM.

Sir Temi had such a good opinion of my father that he used to put him in charge of excavations even at TARXIEN and ĦA AR QIM ruins. My father was an expert on the different types of Maltese Rocks and their characteristics and behaviour, which is an important requisite in Archæology.

When Professor Luigi Maria Ugolini, an Italian archæologist, was in Malta during the early thirties doing studies on Malta's Stone-Age ruins, he was very pleased with the information my father gave him about Malta's types of stone, information which Ugolini could not obtain from anywhere else. Prof. Ugolini was so appreciative of my father's hints and of his interest in archæology that he took him with him into the Ħaġar Qim Ruins and explained to him all the secrets he had himself discovered about the utility and construction of the temples there. These were original ideas which my father had never heard before. These ideas were so sound and reasonable that they helped us to build up more ideas on this sound basis.

[Editor's note: A copy of L. M. Ugolini's Malta - origini della civiltà mediterranea (Rome: Libreria dello Stato, 1934, 1st edition, pp. xv + 315) may usefully be consulted in the National Library of Malta in Valletta. Ugolini's earlier publications in the field of Maltese archaeology include "La Venere preistorica di Malta" (in Dedalo, anno XI, 1931, fasc. xvii, novembre, p. 1281), "La Dormiente di Malta" (in Dedalo, anno XII, 1932, fasc. viii, agosto, p. 575), and "Ritratto di Tiberio trovato nella Villa Romana di Malta" (in Bull. del Museo dell'Impero Romano, anno LIX, 1931, p.21.

In Ugolini's own eyes, Malta was no more than an appetiser offered to the public prior to a complete publication of his five-volume study, Malta Antica, the first volume of which, "I templi neolitici di Tarscien", was already in the press when Malta was published, work on the second, third and fourth volumes, "I maggiori templi neolitici e l'Ipogeo", "Templi neolitici minori e monumenti megalitici" and "Templi, necropoli e materiali di età cuprolitica", had already reached an advanced stage of preparation, and the author no longer entertained any serious doubts as to the nature of the "Conclusioni" he then intended to publish in volume five.

When Professor Ugolini presented a copy of Malta to the National Library in Valletta in April 1935, he was still busily engaged in field-work at Ħaġar Qim, where he enjoyed the full official support of the British authorities, who had, indeed, already very gladly placed at his disposal a number of suitably qualified assistants, equipped with measuring poles, a theodolite, etc. However, although this outstanding archaeologist had never meddled in politics, he will not have been unaware that for Mussolini the finding on Malta of a portrait of the Roman Emperor Tiberius was a clear indication that the island's destiny was inextricably linked to that of Italy.

Great Britain, too, has long cherished her many Italian connections but, when Mussolini invaded Abyssinia, British support for Professor Ugolini came to an abrupt end, he had to leave Malta and, in the ensuing vastly different economic and political circumstances, it is little wonder that much of importance that he had earlier confided verbally to his friend, Carmel Ellul, was never published in so many words.]

 

INTRODUCTION

From the aforesaid one will notice that what one is to read in this book is a collection of the best ideas from the best minds in Archæology. They are ideas that, for four generations, have been gleaned from those that at the first glance did not agree with the current opinion.

Yet the reader will notice that there are several revolutionary ideas that may appear strange at first sight, but they are only the reasonable conclusions of factual evidence.

This is not a hurried study of a place carried out in a few months. It is the study of some ruins that for four generations were under our care, the first generation seeing their excavation in 1839.

So there are some things that have come down to us through tradition, and so one cannot find these registered in any other place.

This is the main reason why I have decided to put down these ideas in black and white, so that they will not be lost for ever.

I know it is very hard to change an opinion that has been instilled or perhaps indoctrinated in the minds of people for several generations, but the new opinions I present are backed by the proof of facts, facts that nobody can deny. I am not very fond of theories, but I do like theorems because they lead to some proven result.

The contents of this booklet also serve to show that the narratives of Creation and of the Flood in Genesis are scientifically and archæologically correct.

 

PREHISTORY

Thousands of years ago, the Mediterranean was not the sea it is now. On a geologically modern map it is about two thousand miles long, stretching from Palestine to Spain and separating Southern Europe from Northern Africa. There is no need to add that, like all other seas, it is now salty.

But the above description does not apply to the middle sea of the Pre-Diluvian era. At that time, this one vast area consisted of just two or perhaps three fresh-water lakes. The one in the East, between Greece and Egypt, was fed by the waters of the Nile and by other rivers in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor, such rivers as the Danube, the Don and the other comparatively small rivers flowing into the modern Black Sea would have continued to flow through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into this eastern lake occupying the Ionian Abyssal Plain. Even the River Po and the rivers of Yugoslavia and of Italy flowing into the Adriatic depression would have all ended in this eastern lake.

The other lake (or two) which occupied the western basin bounded by Spain, France, Italy and Algeria to the West, North, East and South respectively, was fed by the rivers Ebro, Rhône, Tiber, Mulugya, Cheliff and the many other rivers flowing into this western basin of the Mediterranean. I said 'TWO lakes' because this basin could have been formed into two lakes separated by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. (See map of pre-diluvian Mediterranean - Pic.2)

The surface of these fresh-water lakes was at a much lower level than that of the Atlantic Ocean. It was about 6,000 feet lower, while its present depth exceeds 14,000 feet.

But the waters of the Atlantic could not flow into this island basin, because what is now the Straits of Gibraltar was closed by a ridge joining the mainlands of Spain and Africa into one single land-mass.. Professor Edward Hull is also of this opinion. (Malta, T. Zammit, 1st edition, 1926, page 9).

From this high ridge flowed down springs of water caused by the pressure of the high Atlantic waters on its rocks and fissures. This went on until this ridge gave way during a cataclysm that caused a fault or rift-valley running from Gibraltar along the Alboran and Algerian Basins, the Algerian Tyrrhenian Trough and into the Malta Trough. This Malta connection is also evidenced by the steep, vertical, high cliffy southern coast of Malta. Of course, this collapse of the Gibraltar Ridge had tremendous repercussions.

So in this prediluvian era, a large part of the land which is now submerged under the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, was then above water. Thus, what we today call the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa formed, in those days, one whole immensely vast landmass.

Over this mammoth continent, covered with vast forests and interlaced with rivers, roamed large herds of Elephants and Mastodons, Bears, Deer, Hippopotamuses and other wild animals, huge tortoises and other huge fresh-water reptiles, most of them extinct today. Bones of such animals have been excavated from the prehistoric cave know as "Għar Dalam" (Cave of Darkness - Pic.52) - which lies on the way between Bir-id-Deheb and Birzebbugia. (Malta, T.Z., Appendix 1).

Because of these animals which naturally abounded in the low ground, the human beings of that era had to make their dwellings on the high ground and ridges away from the lakes and marshes. Moreover, to keep these animals away, those men even constructed a kind of bastion made of big blocks of stone to form a perimeter for their dwellings and temples. (Pic.4 and Pic.5).

The ruins at ĦA AR QIM were protected by such a wall, a large portion of which can still be seen today on the Northwest, North and East sides of the main ruins.

Another very important reason for erecting their buildings on the high ground and crests of hills is that on the crest of most hills is found a shallow layer of rock cracked into varying shapes and sizes. This was something more than a blessing for those primitive people who, as yet, had only the first conception of the tool: a crowbar and a lump of hard limestone - and who depended mostly on their personal strength and intelligence for their achievements.

Also, since man had to give up the idea of living in caves - as he could not always find one - he had started building for himself his own "cave", or rather the first kind of house. This he did by making good use of the loose flat slabs of rock he found in this surface layer on the crests of hills. Now transport was his greatest difficulty. So, whenever possible, he would try to do without it. Most often he would start to erect his buildings on the very same spot where he found his building-slabs which then required only to be raised upright. But naturally this would also require his digging up a comparatively larger area, whenever he wished to build a temple that required a large number of blocks.

At Ħaġar Qim the face of the rock from which the blocks of stone comprising it have been quarried is situated about a hundred metres to the S.E. of the ruins in a field to the South of the gate. (This area has now been levelled by modern bulldozers). Another rock-face can be observed about 200 metres to the Southwest on the way to Mnajdra. If one goes to this spot, one may see this very clearly for oneself.

From this one can understand why the remains of the Megalithic ruins are mostly found near the top of some high ground covered with a surface-layer of rock. What we today call the Maltese Islands was in those far-off days the peaks of mountains or at least high ground, and so it is no wonder that these islands are dotted with no less than NINE Prehistoric remains. Among the most important of these are ĦA ar Qim, Mnajdra and Tarxien in Malta, and gantija in Għawdex (Gozo). The Hypogeum at Ħal Saflieni, at Paola, is not built, but cut in the living rock.

 

THE FLOOD
Noah's Flood Differently Explained

When this life of travelling and worshipping was going on, a phenomenal and unexpected event occurred. It caused the destruction of all life and practically everything else existing on the lands around today's Mediterranean Sea.

Violent quaking of the land accompanied by torrential rains caused the high but narrow ridge joining Morocco to Spain to subside. This subsidence (similar to that which occurred recently, on 29 February 1960, at Agadir in nearby Morocco) seems to have had its repercussions in the southern coast of Malta, which clearly reveals the side of a Rift- or Fault-valley. Thus, the vast "dry dock" of the Mediterranean had its "gate" blown open, allowing the waters of the Atlantic and other world-wide oceans to rush in with tremendous and horrible power, sweeping over all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean, reaching high above the highest mountains, and flooding the lands of most of Europe, the western half of Asia, and the northern half of Africa.

If one consults a sea-depth map of the Mediterranean (Pic.2), one will see that a line or valley of unusual depth runs along, and very close to the Algerian coast of Africa in a straight line from Gibraltar to Sicily, and then branches South-East to the South of Malta. Someone has taken this strange depth as proof that Malta was never connected to Africa but, on the contrary, this great depth proves the existence of the rift-valley which brought about the subsidence of the Gibraltar Ridge, thus flooding the Mediterranean and all the lands around it - which were, for all intents and purposes, the whole of the then known world in that Pre-Diluvian Era.

Besides, such an upheaval on the sea would create such a huge wave all over the world that it would flood and destroy every coastal dwelling, as happened in the Pacific Ocean after the earthquake in Chile on 21 May 1960; Japan, on the other side of the Pacific, suffered heavily from such a tidal or rather seismic wave. So it is no wonder that research shows that the effects of the Flood are registered in places all over the world, even within the Pacific Ocean. These effects were not caused directly by the actual Flood itself, but by the related flooding and destruction brought about by a huge seismic wave that affected coastal dwellings all over the world.

The Caribbean Islands are also reported to have suffered severe flooding some thousands of years ago. This severe flooding of the Caribbean islands is quite natural, when one considers that the Caribbean lies exactly opposite to Gibraltar and, having a horse-shoe shape, it reflects the waves, concentrating them in the middle of the Caribbean. So this flood in the Caribbean must correspond in time with, and be the effect of the Great Flood round the Mediterranean basin.

Such a catastrophic event will certainly have made a deep impression upon any people that may have survived outside the boundaries of the flooded areas, so that they would narrate it to everybody wherever they went, from generation to generation. It is no wonder, then, that the story of the Flood is found narrated in ancient books all over the world - and especially those originating in coastal regions.

It is said that according to tradition the only survivors from a great destructive cataclysm were the inhabitants of the North-West corner of the Iberian Peninsula. Someone attributes this cataclysm to the destruction of Atlantis. In my opinion this Iberian corner would be the safest place in Europe in which to escape the onrush of waters through Gibraltar towards the East. I would also opt for the opinion that the lost continent of Atlantis is nothing else than the submerged area of the Mediterranean which is almost one-fourth of Europe or one-third of Australia.

[Webmaster-Editor's note: In Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & The Mediterranean, author David Hatcher Childress, who has visited Joseph Ellul at his home in Zurrrieq, suggests instead that what is now Malta was formerly part of a rival empire that waged war against Atlantis and even claims Plato's support for this opinion. Plato reported that Atlantis had been destroyed by flood in about 9,600 B.C., but he also stated that there had been a succession of lesser floods.]

When one consults the Bible for what it says about the FLOOD, one will find that, on close examination, the wording exactly fulfils what has been said above. In Genesis (7:11) the BIBLE says:

Let us examine the meaning of these words in relation to what really happened.

"All the fountains": As the Atlantic surface was about 6,000 feet higher than that of the then Mediterranean fresh-water lakes, it would be very obvious that streams or fountains of water percolating through the fissures of the rock streamed down from the rocky high ridge. These fountains, quite naturally, were those "of the Great Deep" - and even in modern usage the word "deep" often means "the great ocean". "Were broken up" very clearly means "burst open". [Webmaster-Editor's note: More commonly, however, in ancient times "the Great Deep" referred to the vastness of cosmic space. Cf. Hamlet's Mill.]

All this, summed up, means that: "All the fountains and springs percolating through the fissures in the rock of the high ridge and coming from the Great Atlantic Ocean burst out as a result of a rift or fault caused by an earthquake, so letting that immense amount of water rush in with a force that can hardly be imagined."

Such destruction is even registered by geologists. Ernest G. Geoghegan, in an article in The Malta Chronicle of 29 April 1933, described the effects of the water on land, although he attributed this water to a difference source than the Gibraltar wave.

He stated that "sections measuring thousands of cubic miles of water hit the earth on the land between Pantelleria and Gibraltar, while other great sections hit between Malta and Palestine, and small sections of merely hundreds of cubic miles hit the Upper Rhône. The effect of that blow was to scoop out the two Mediterraneans, for the water HAD A TERRIFIC MOTION FROM WEST TO EAST which would have swamped every ship on the ocean and would have swamped Noah, but for the fact that his ship had been built some thousands of feet above sea-level" - and far away from the sea of those days.

All this destruction caused by a colossal wave rushing from WEST TO EAST can be witnessed in the stone-age megalithic ruins of ĦA AR QIM. When one examines these ruins closely, one will easily see that the wall facing directly Westwards has been completely destroyed. This wall, which had to bear the brunt of this gigantic wave followed by the rush of the water in its wake, could not withstand the onslaught, no matter how massive it had been. Judging by the size of the other remaining outer walls, it must have been very massive. Huge blocks of stone from the western wall have been thrown off from their original positions and piled up in a heap some ten metres away towards the East, as if they had been so many wooden boxes and not blocks of stone almost a metre square and about 3 metres long. The heap of stones now partly blocking the entrance between Room B and Room H, actually formed part of the farther entrance on the outside of Room H and of the outside wall itself (Pic.32).

[Webmaster-Editor's note: In July 2001 Shaun Arrigo very kindly showed me a video-film he shot in May 2001 of some otherwise unexplored ancient structures at the bottom of the sea, some distance out from Malta's present-day north-east coast-line. Individual on-site items worthy of special mention include a still intact, ancient, terracotta dish and a shaped stone with a groove in one of its sides. However, the feature I found particularly striking was a very high megalith, seemingly still unbroken and still embedded in its original location - but inclined towards the East at a very considerable angle away from the still vertical position of the immediately adjoining but less exposed structures. The evidence for some sort of flooding having occasioned this damage ought not to be ignored.]

These blocks are a witness to another very important fact. They have a lot of mortar petrified to them, and some of this actually joins the stones themselves to each other. This solidified mortar proves without any doubt that mortar was used in those days, and it also proves that, when the stones from these buildings fell they remained for some time under water, so that the mortar could first soften - and then harden again later, in a different position. If the stones had fallen in dry conditions, the mortar would have simply crumbled and fallen to dust, never again to stick anything together.

Even Room F facing Southwest is occupied in the middle by three large blocks of stone the present position of which is certainly not the original one. The weathering on some faces of the stones indicates that they were in some exposed place for a long time. But as this room is one that had been roofed, this could never have been the case had the stones always been where they now are. So, these stones must have originally formed part of the western wall that was thrown inside during the cataclysm.

Another result of this unleashed force is witnessed very plainly on the Eastern wall through which passes the Main Entrance to the temple. The two layers of horizontal blocks, each 2½' × 2' thick and 7½' long, forming the top of this wall were all found from 15 to 30 feet to the East of where they are replaced now in what is their proper position. The huge horizontal slab (9' × 9' × 1½' thick) forming the lintel of the main entrance was thrown more than 20 feet away towards the East, landing on its right-corner point and breaking it in the fall. (Pic.8, also Pic.9 and Pic.11)

Certainly, no earth-tremour or strong wind could throw such heavy stones to such distances - and all in the same direction! Only a gigantic wave of water from the West could reasonably explain these movements. Several other instances could be observed where huge blocks of stone have been moved from their proper place. But their motion will be found to have always been towards the East. The high southern wall still visible was not thrown down, because it is positioned directly in line with the rush of that cataclysmic wave - in an exactly East-West direction (Pic.31).

Even the highest stone of the ruins at the North-West corner, although it is propped up by huge slabs in the wall on its leeward (eastern) side, was quite obviously disloged from its original position. The wave gave it such a push at the top, and also knocked it so hard against its eastern supports, that it was dislodged from its close-fitting position with its neighbouring western block - and, in the process, kicked the shoring-block at its foot some 3' away. This shoring-block was not put back until some time during the works carried out in the 1950's. Yet the high stone can still be seen with a groove on the right of it matching the block nearby, which is projecting out for about a foot (30cm - Pic.10).

From what has been said above, one will conclude, firstly, that one of the main causes of the Great Flood was the opening of the Gibraltar "sluice-gate" for the ocean waters to surge in and, secondly, that the ĦAġar Qim prehistoric temples were destroyed by an enormous rush of water coming from the West and, therefore, that ĦAġar Qim and contemporaneous ruins were destroyed by the biblical "Great Flood" mentioned in the Book of Genesis.

Even the Tarxien Temples provide additional proof of the Great Flood. As these ruins were first excavated in the time of Prof. Sir Temi Zammit, who exercised the greatest of care in all his archæological enterprises, more details are available about this place than about Ħaġar Qim, where excavations were carried out very haphazardly. In §12 of the Preface to the 3rd edition of his book, The Neolithic Temples of Tarxien, Sir Temi states that the ruins"were covered with a layer of fine sandy deposit that buried the whole for about three feet above the floor."

This sediment of fine sand perplexed the excavating archæologists because, they reasoned out, "How could this sediment, which has all the appearance of being deposited by water, come inside Tarxien Temples, when these stand on a hill and in no way in the path of running water?" The solution is that this sediment came there when Malta was beneath the waters of the Great Flood, which covered the land for more than three hundred days.

During that time the sand particles carried by the water settled down to a thickness of THREE FEET on the floor of the ruined temple, where it remained unmolested until its excavation in 1914. The author is quoting what the excavators felt about this silt, because he happens to be the son of the man who was then in charge of the excavations, under the direction of Sir Temi Zammit, who used to discuss his problems with my father, from whom the author heard about this problem.

This water-deposited sediment was not found only in Malta, where, as mentioned above, it was found to have a depth of THREE FEET, but it was also discovered in Iran, near the city of Ur. Archæologist Sir Leonard Wooley and his archæologist wife discovered this kind of virgin silt to a depth of NINE FEET. Under this layer they found the remains of another civilization. When Lady Wooley saw it, she exclaimed: "Well, of course, it's the Flood."

This layer of virgin silt was also discovered in the South of France. There it was said to be in a layer SIX FEET deep.

During excavations in Mesopotamia, in a place called XARI SUSTE, a whole town was found buried underneath a layer of sand. Human skeletons were found, some in a praying, others in a crouched sleeping position. Pottery was found in perfect condition, laid out in a position ready for meals. Archæologists commented that "a civilization of 5,000 years ago was terminated abruptly for some unknown reason."

Even in the case of Malta, some archæologists say that our Neolithic Civilisation was ended abruptly for some unknown reason.

I cannot understand why they still pretend that the reason is unknown, when so much evidence has already come to light of a then-known-world-wide flooding that caused the destruction of everything, living or not, within its reach. This destruction, as I have explained, was caused by the instantaneous on-rush of a monstrous sea-wave from the Atlantic, coming through what are now the Straits of Gibraltar.

When one sums up all these finds, of rocks moved by masses of water coming from the West, in different parts of the lands around the Mediterranean (as observed by E. G. Geoghegan), and also the silting-up found round the Mediterranean, one will have to conclude that all this was caused by the opening of the Gibraltar flood-gate, as explained above.

When one studies the Maltese Megalithic ruins with a modicum of open-mindedness and good-will, one will see for oneself that all evidence points to the fact that these ruins were destroyed by a huge watery wave, which came from the WEST, so causing the Great Flood mentioned in the Bible, which flooded all the lands round the Mediterranean, that is to say, the whole of the then known "world".

[Webmaster-Editor's note: Zecharia Sitchin inclines to the view that the mud deposited by the Biblical Flood will have been miles thick, not just a few feet deep. Although Joseph S. Ellul disagrees, he nevertheless esteems Sitchin and holds his work in high regard.]

Two other finds in these Maltese temples point to the fact that these megalithic buildings were destroyed by some terrific force which happened most unexpectedly.

One is the discovery of a prehistoric skull (Pic.41) but without any other human bones to be found in the temple. Certainly, this skull could not have been buried by people. So, when the wave arrived, the owner of this skull must have been standing in the doorway of the chamber where he was found. The force of the wave must have crashed against the walls, trapping his head between some stones and severing it from his body, the rest of which the wave then carried away.

Another curious find is the skeleton, complete, of a baby inside a small alcove that must have been used as a baby's bed-room inside the lower temple of Mnajdra. This shows that the parents of this baby, though careful and loving enough as to build a small room expressly for their baby, had not had time to go in and try to rescue it. The parents, together with the rest of the movables, were carried away by the wave, while the baby remained to die at home, drowned in its well-sheltered cradle. (Pic.43).

I do not think that the discovery of these bones of a baby has been recorded anywhere else, but I know of it from my great-grand-father, who took part in the excavation. That is why I am putting it down for the record now.

In 1984 it was reported that oceanographers had found structures reminiscent of a human settlement at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea near Gibraltar. "Those scientists speculated this was Atlantis, an island which Greek mythology say was inundated by water after an earthquake." This description all fits in with the history of the Flood.

But the Soviet Communist (and officially atheist) oceanographers who went to investigate, quite naturally, found nothing.

In the 1950's, however, Soviet archæologists did discover the stonework and statues of the legendary town of Dioscuria (Pic.2) which had disappeared from ancient maps. It was found at the bottom of the Black Sea off Sukhumi.

In einem von Maurice Chatelain verðffentlifhten Artikel "The Maltese Cross" (Das Kreuz der Johanniter) in Ancient Skies berichtet er: "Im Mittelmeer ruhen alte griechische Städte, die vor langer Zeit versunken sind und niemand kann heute noch daran zweifeln. Die Luftbildaufnahmen heutiger Tage haben das wiedergefunden, was ägäische Fischer schon vor Tausenden von Jahren entdeckt hatten, versunkene Tempel, Städte, Dðrfer und Strassen. Nicht weit ausserhalf des kleinen Hafens Halieis, zwischen Mykene und Tiryns befindet sich unter vielen Metern Wasser verborgen ein ehemaliger Tempel der Zeus, erbaut im Jahre 780 v. Chr."

[Webmaster-Editor's note: I don't at present have to hand the original English text of Maurice Chatelain's article in Ancient Skies, but quote instead his book Our Cosmic Ancestors (Sedona, Arizona: Temple Golden Publications, 1988, pp. 5-7 & 210-12):

"The recent decoding of strange radio signals received from outer space seems to indicate that astronauts from Epsilon Bootis could have been in orbit around the Earth, at the same distance as the Moon, for the last 12,600 years.

A clay tablet covered with cuneiform script and discovered in the ruins of Nineveh shows a huge number, 195,955,200 millions, which represents expressed in seconds, an enormous period of time of 2,268 million days or 6.3 million years.

This period of time, which seems to have been computed 64,800 years ago, is an exact multiple of any astronomical cycle known so far and must, therefore, have been an astronomical constant of the universe.

Mayan astronomers, whose chronology appears to go back to 49,611 B.C., had computed enormous periods of time of 93 and 403 million years corresponding to cosmic cycles that we have just recently discovered.

They had computed a long calendar of 5163 years based on the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, and a shorter one of 104 years based on Mars and Venus. They knew that these conjunctions occurred exactly behind the Sun every 2,383 years, and that the same solar eclipse happened every 521 years on the same day of the year and the same point on the zodiac.

The Mayan calendar of 14,040 days or 39 years was based on the coincidence of Mercury years of 117 days, sacred years of 260 days, solar years of 360 days, Venus years of 585 days, Mars years of 780 days, and Mars-Uranus conjunction cycles of 702 days.

The Great Pyramid was built according to the two mathematical factors of Pi of 22/7 and Phi of 89/55. Its volume and weight were exact fractions of those of the Earth, and all of its dimensions are related to astronomical cycles and conjunction periods. With the Sphinx and the other two pyramids, it clearly indicates the exact point where the treasure of the Pharaohs could be located.

The Egyptian calendar, which seems to be related to the Mayan one, was established in 49,214 B.C. It was based on the coincidence of solar years of 365 days, with Sirius years of 365 1/4 days every 1460 years and with Venus years of 584 days every 2,336 years.

A huge Maltese Cross made of thirteen ancient Greek temples and covering 540 kilometers across the Aegean Sea, has recently been discovered. It shows the perfect division of a circle into 28 equal sectors.

On the floor of the Chartres cathedral, a circle, a square, and a rectangle, each cover an area which is exactly one hundredth of that of the base of the Great Pyramid. Ten French cathedrals are located on the map in the same relative positions as ten stars of the Virgo constellation in the sky. On a map of France, a triangle made by three very ancient monuments represents the exact cross-section of the Great Pyramid, but fourteen million times larger.

An astronomical calculator, discovered at the bottom of the Aegean Sea and certainly several thousand years old, could compute eighteen different astronomical cycles derived from the ancient Egyptian lunisolar cycle of 76 years, by means of a differential and various bronze gear trains.

Our ancestors could cross the oceans and navigate around the world by using the circular winds and currents. They knew their latitude from the height of the polar star and their longitude from the interval between sunset and moonrise which is different for every point on any particular day.

Modern calculation of ancient eclipse and conjunction dates shows that everything that is written in the Bible is the true story of historical events that really happened in the past but have been slowly distorted by many successive writers, translators, and interpreters who could not find the right words for events or objects which they had never seen before.

For example, there seems to be no doubt that the world ELOHIM, which is a plural in Hebrew, should have been translated as astronauts, that Adam and Eve also could have been astronauts, and that the Garden of Eden could have been an enormous spaceship in orbit around the Earth.

Is astrology an exact science or an enormous impostor? Sumerian astrologers invented 9,700 years ago a zodiac with twelve signs, but the Mayas computed a more precise one with 13 signs which is now used by some modern astrologers.

The Earth poles and continents have shifted many times in the past. Our polar ice-caps were once tropical jungles while our deserts were at the bottom of the sea. This is why we never find ruins of ancient civilizations that are older than a few thousand years. The vestiges of the first human cultures must be now under the polar caps or at the bottom of the oceans...

None of our classic theories could satisfactorily explain the sudden appearance of the Cro-Magnon man on Earth. No one using the classic theories of evolution will ever explain how the Cro-Magnon, immediately upon arrival {some 64,800 years ago}, could calculate the Nineveh constant based on the planets Uranus and Neptune, which he couldn't even see, and the imperceptible displacement of the equinoctial point that shifts west by only one degree every seventy-two years.

In my opinion, both these mysteries have just one explanation - the intervention of astronauts from another world, who came, just as the Bible tells us, to create, educate, and civilize a new human race in their own image...

It is evident that all the theories and hypotheses that I have proposed here are subject to further verification, and it is possible that some will be proven inexact, as is often the case in this kind of research, touching on the outer limits of exact sciences. But that seems to be of lesser importance to me, at least as far as we are concerned now. What is important is to launch and set into motion new ideas, so that these can inspire subsequent generations to make their own discoveries and formulate new theories."]

In einer TV-Sendung der italienischen Fernsehgesellschaft RAI im September 1990 wurde von israelischen Tiefseearchäologen berichtet, welche einen Brunnen auf dem Grund des Mittelmeeres vor der Küste Israels, nahe Haifa entdekt hatten. Er wurde mit einem ungefähren Alter von 12,000 Jahren in die Steinzeit datiert. Der Brunnen soll sich ca. 12 m. unter dem Niveau des Mittelmeeres befinden.

All this proves that the level of the Mediterranean and Black Seas was not always at its present high level.

[Joseph Ellul's addition to text, 1 December 2004: The Black Sea has several large and smaller rivers flowing into it. They are the Russian Dneister, the Dnieper, the Bug and the Don, the second largest European river the Danube, and several large and minor rivers in Turkey's Asia Minor, such as the Kizil, Koruk and the Bafra. This huge amount of fresh water surpasses greatly the evaporation and so, even today, huge amounts of almost fresh water flow out of the Bosphorus into the Aegean Sea.

So, during Prehistory, before the Flood that formed the Mediterranean Sea, the then lake in the Black Sea also overflowed through the Bosphorus at the level of the bottom of the Bosphorus canal. This overflow passed through the Dardanelles into the Aegean area, passing between the then hills of the Aegean Islands into the large deep lake north of Egypt, the Herodotus Abyssal Lake, 2790 fathoms deep. As the Bosphorus is 60 metres deep, the lake in the Black Sea overflowed at that height.

So, the surface of the antediluvian lake in the Black Sea was 60 metres lower than the present surface; the short of the Black Sea was dry and habitable up to a depth of 60 metres. No wonder, then, that several evidences of human habitation are discovered under water near the shores of the Black Sea. Evidence of a river-bed is now said to have been discovered, coming out of the Sea of Azof; this must have been an extension of the River Don.

According to Maurice Chatelain's article, "The Maltese Cross" (Ancient Skies, Vol. 16, No. 1): "There are ancient Greek temples and cities that have been submerged by the Mediterranean. Today no one has the right to doubt that reality. Aerial photography has rediscovered what old Aegean fishermen found thousands of years ago - sunken temples, villages and streets. Just outside of the small port of Haleis, between Mycenes and Tiryns, there reposes under many feet of water a former temple of Zeus."

Again, in a T.V.-programme on RAI in September 1990 it was announced that Isræli deep-sea archæologists had discovered a well at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Isræl; it is of neolithic age, c. 12,000 years old. The well is in the Mediterranean and 12 metres below sea-level. This dating of 12,000 years ago for the Neolithic Age agrees with my dating of Ħaġar Qim.

In the 1990's, the well known researcher Robert Ballard, famous for deep-sea research, discovered sculptured wooden beams together with stone tools. This was some 20 Km from the north coast of the Black Sea. He also found signs of a small river, as mentioned above, and similar signs of human habitation were discovered a few kilometres north of the south coast of the Black Sea (where a passenger-plane crashed in the 1990's). This all proves that the Black Sea used to be a much smaller lake.

Scientific people also claim that at some time in the past a huge rush of water came from the European side into the Black Sea. This, too, proves the monstrous wave came from the west. Some claim it was caused by the melting of Ice-Age ice - but who ever saw the melting of ice forming a wave of any sort, let alone a monstrously large one? This wave evidence confirms what I wrote above about the wave from Gibraltar, when I mentioned geologist E. G. Geoghegan's similar view.

The Dead Sea is another result of this same huge flooding. The Dead Sea's extreme saltiness was caused as follows: When the ocean waters of the flood receded, the vast deep depression of the Jordan Valley remained filled with salt-water. The small Jordan river was insufficient to make up for the huge evaporation throughout this vast area, and so that vast inland salty lake started to diminish - but while the water diminished, the salt remained; the saltiness of this inland sea increased in inverse proportion to the amount of water that was left behind. The Dead Sea is still diminishing

One finds a similar phenomenon in the Qattara Depression in the desert west of Egypt. Today the Qattara Depression is dry sand. When the salty waters of the flood receded this depression remained filled with salty water. As there was no river to supply for the loss by evaporation, when the water dried up, the salt mixed with the sand. We can see evidence of this now whenever it rains there - although all the surrounding desert becomes green, the Qattara Depression remains bare; nothing grows there, because of the salt.

The so called Shotts ('shores') or salty lakes of Algiers and Tunis are also a throw-back to the salty waters of the flood. The water in these lakes is never changed or renewed, since there is no outlet to the sea; the salt stays put. ('Shott' derives from the Arabic 'shatt', which means 'shore of the salty sea. In Maltese, another Semitic language, 'shatt' also means 'shore'. Shott El Djerid in Tunisia and in Algeria Shott Melhrir, Shott Ech Chergui and Shott El Hodna are marked on maps of the Algerian Atlas plateau; others may also exist that are not marked.)]

All these instances are evidence of the effects of the flooding of the Old World area by the Atlantic waters (backed by the waters of the other oceans) during the Biblical Flood, also called the Universal Flood, even though it only flooded the lands round the Mediterranean, i.e., almost all of Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, which, for all intents and purposes, were "the then known World".

That is why, as I said above, I am of the opinion that the continent of disappeared Atlantis was nothing less than the now submerged land under the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

There is also another query. Why is it that the big lakes in central Eurasia, known as "the Caspian Sea" and the "Sea of Aral" contain salty water? And why is that Lake Balkash and Lake Baikal contain fresh water? It is precisely because the Atlantic wave reached only up to the Caspian and the Aral, but did not reach to lake Balkash.

From this, one can see that the story of the Great Flood is no myth but a real historical fact - all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea were flooded during the time of their human habitation, with the ensuing destruction, very suddenly, of all the civilizations then flourishing in the area.

 

AGE OF THE TEMPLE

A very pertinent question would be: "How long ago did this Great Flood occur?"

In an illustrated article by George Langelaan published in the English paper Look and Learn about the remarkable expedition of Fernand Navarra who climbed Mount Ararat and brought back with him a block of wood cut from a huge mass of timber in the form of a very large boat, it was stated under a photo of the wood that "THIS TIMBER FROM ARARAT IS 5,000 YEARS OLD. That is the verdict after laboratory tests in Paris, Madrid and Bordeaux." Subsequent Carbon-14 tests also established its age as 5,000 years old.

More recent modern studies have further consolidated this estimated age of 5,000 years. New tests carried out by the well known Cambridge archæologist Colin Renfrew, basing his studies on the method of the Carbon-14 testings, have resulted in establishing that the last inhabitants of the Megalithic Temples of Malta lived about 5,000 years ago. Thus, the date set by Malta's prime archæologist, Professor Sir Themistocles Zammit, at 3,000 years B.C. is thereby confirmed.

But for what length of time had this temple been standing erect before it was destroyed by the wave of the Flood?

This question is answered by examining closely and minutely the high SOUTHERN WALL of the temple. The first thing one should notice is that the reason these stones have not been felled is precisely because they stand exaactly in line with the rush of the diluvial wave coming from the West. Now let us examine their present condition and try to guess the ordeal they had been through before the destruction of the temple. The wall is made up of four upright slabs, one of which is set crosswise for support. None of the four blocks is in a state of erosion at the present time, yet the stones show that they have been much worn out during some time in the past. But the quality of the stone of which these slabs are composed is of a kind that does not erode by itself. This is so far true, that these stones have developed a hard crust ('skorca' in Maltese) with the passing of time. The longer the time that passes, the thicker and harder that crust becomes (Pic.31).

Yet, if an eroding stone lies above or alongside these stones, they will, instead of hardening, start eroding as well, though at a much slower rate than will the eroding stone. While an eroding stone wears out about three inches in one hundred years, this type of good stone wears out only about one quarter of an inch. Moreover, when the eroding stone is moved away, the good stone stops its own erosion and once again starts forming a harder crust. This fact is well known to every Maltese who is familiar with the characteristics of the different types of building stone found in Malta.

So, these huge stone slabs of Globigerina Limestone were eroded ONLY BETWEEN THE ERECTION AND THE COLLAPSE of the temple, and only when and for as long as they had the eroding blocks close to them.

Considering this fact and the fact that this type of stone erodes at the rate of only one quarter of an inch in one hundred years, and observing that the stones have eroded a thickness of twelve inches at least (one of the blocks is worn out right through, forming a window), then a small calculation of 12 inches times 4 quarters times 100 years gives us 4,800 years (12 × 4 × 100 = 4,800). This shows that from the time that the wall was erected till it was destroyed, a period of 4,800 years had passed. This is not a ridiculously large number when one considers that this is the oldest temple of them all. A very long time must have passed between its construction and that of the much more refined Tarxien Temples and the Hypogeum. One needs to bear in mind that in those days progress moved at a relatively slow pace.

Yet, this wall is the last wall to be built in the Ħaġar Qim complex, which was built in three stages, the oldest one being the small one to the North-West.

So, considering the sum total of the above, the temple of Ħaġar Qim was destroyed 5,000 years ago. Its last wall was built some 5,000 years before that, while the oldest smaller temple was built at least another 2,000 years earlier. This adds up to 12,000 years old.

One might think that there is something odd about this big number. But there isn't.

Somewhere about the 1950's, a very prominent professor of archæology from a foreign university visited the Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra complex. He gently refused to be taken round Ħaġar Qim by my father, the official guide there at the time, saying that he wanted to see things for himself. My father soon noted that this gentleman was an archæologist. As soon as this visitor came back up the slope from Mnajdra, my father went to meet him and asked him what he thought of the ruins. The gentleman replied very politely:

"I have been visting the prehistoric ruins all round the Mediterranean, from Mesopotamia to Egypt, Greece and Switzerland, but I have nowhere seen a place as old as this one."

Then my father asked him again: "How old do you think this temple is?"

To my father's great surprise he answered: "I think that this place is 12,000 years old."

My father got the surprise of his life. He had heard 6,000 B.C. suggested before, but 10,000 B.C. was too much for him to grasp.

One can see from this that my calculation is no highly imaginative idea, but something based on facts, proven facts.

The visitor told my father that he was Professor of Archæology in the University of London. Later, I discovered that this gentleman must have been Professor Vere Gordon Childe who, in his book Dawn of European Civilizations (in the chapter "Island Civilizations") wrote that what "cannot be correctly estimated on available evidence by comparison to other countries" can be estimated by the above mentioned method.

So, the opinion that the Ħaġar Qim complex started its existence some 12,000 years ago is no wild guess, but is based on moderate calculation and corroborated by a great archæologist. I said "moderate" because the stones have worn out even more than 12 inches.

There is evidence that the Ħaġar Qim complex was built in three stages. First to be built were the small ruins to the North marked T U V W X Y Z (Pic.3). Later they built the chapels I and perhaps H. Then they built the rest of the main temple. This conclusion comes from the fact that the small temple had three layers of pavement. Chamber 'I' had two layers, while the rest of the main temple had only one layer of pavement. That is why I said above that the South wall was the last to be built.

[Webmaster-Editor's note: Vere Gordon Childe is one of the many authors mentioned by Luigi Maria Ugolini in his Malta - Origini della Civiltà Mediterranea. Childe at first believed that the diffusion of human culture into the Mediterranean area had been primarily from Asia and Egypt - that at a time when Frankfort was tracing it from the Danube through the Balkans to Greece, but he later came round to Ugolini's idea of ex medio lux - the neolithic civilization of Malta, well established by 8000 B.C., came well before the copper- and bronze-age cultures of the Aegean, Crete and Mycene; cultural diffusion was from the south-west.]

 

SILTING UP

Any amount of rushing water would dig up anything on the "windward" side of an immovable obstacle and deposit silt on the "leeward" side. This huge rush of water did this on a massive scale. It carried everything that could be moved and buried anything that could not be dislodged. This effect can be seen in Malta if one knows where to look, especially in and around the megalithic ruins. One instance of this effect is Malta's present lack of soil. This is one of Malta's scarcities which is due to the fact that the flood-wave carried away most of our sandy soil. Malta's present-day red sandy soil was collected with much hardship by the island's early farmers from hollows in the ground, and then made into workable plots. The scarcity of soil in Malta is felt so much that it is nowadays unlawful to waste soil by leaving any of it underneath any new building that is being constructed. It is said that in the days of the Knights of St. John soil was even brought to Malta from abroad, perhaps for some special project of construction the Knights had undertaken.

So, this great flood, while carrying away the soil, silted up all obstacles and the leeward sides of hills. Ħaġar Qim, like all the island's prehistoric ruins, was silted up to the top of the general level. This silting-up could be seen on the East side of Malta, which was on the lee side of the rush of the wave. At Wied ix-Xoqqa near Kalafrana can be seen the edge of a huge silting-up process.

Up to the time of its excavation in 1839, Ħaġar Qim was still a hillock of cultivated land with some blocks and pillars of stone projecting above the soil, which covered it to a level about a foot above the blocks that flank the doorways. The tops of some of these blocks still bear the marks of the plough-share which sometimes struck against these stones. Just above the pre-excavation level can be seen the marks of tools the farmers used to cut some of the stones to build their huts or walls. Whenever those farmers needed some stone, they looked upon these protruding blocks as a very convenient source of supply. Thus, the superstructure has been greatly damaged and those upright blocks which have been truncated at the pre-excavation level of the soil still bear the scars of those relatively modern methods of stone-cutting.

"The world before the Cataclysm is often referred to as the prediluvial world Earth before the biblical Flood or Cataclysm. It is very difficult to imagine what the world was like before it was nearly destroyed; however, Allan and Delair examined the global fauna and flora and the geological data and have proposed a tentative precataclysmic map of the world. Also using the rare fragments in myths that describe the world before the Flood, Allan and Delair hypothesize that before the Cataclysm: (1) Earth must have been a stable planet over a long span of geological time; (2) the disposition of land and sea must have been very different; (3) mountains were fewer and lower, and deserts were less extensive and seas shallower; and (4) polar ice caps, if they existed at all, would have been of modest size. They surmise that there was more carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere; storms were infrequent and modest; humidity was high with mostly dew instead of rain; and vegetation was luxuriant" Barbara Hand Clow, Catastrophobia, Bear & Company, 2001, p.45. This book summarises some recent research relating to the Great Flood.

- Shalom & Welcome! -

   

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